Questions DeFi users should be asking DeFi Developers

Photo by Evan Dennis on Unsplash

The DeFi space has had a tumultuous couple months, with a number of attacks as well as unexploited vulnerabilities being reported.

Bugs are unavoidable, but there are many things that can be done to reduce their frequency, and mitigate their negative effects.

As auditors, we want to help, but in order to really get developers to truly prioritize security, users need to start asking tough questions, and putting their money into the protocols that can answer them thoughtfully.

The following list of questions is useful for understanding a development team’s security stance. There isn’t always a right or wrong answer, and some teams (or solo developers) don’t have the resources to cover all the bases, regardless users deserve to have the information to decide what level of risk they are comfortable with.

We hope that asking these question will push the conversation in the right direction.

1. Admin permissions

The majority of popular defi protocols have some form of centralized control that enables specific ‘administrator’ addresses to intervene in powerful ways.

This has some security benefits, but it means that you have to trust the administrator(s) not to abuse their privileges. It also adds the risk of an attacker gaining access to an administrator’s private keys, and all the privileges that come with them.

An administrator account can take several possible forms, including a single address, a multisig wallet, or even be a DAO controlled by a voting process.

Some of this information is already being tracked at DefiWatch.

2. External Dependencies

The Ethereum chain is full of adversarial actors, so in general developers should avoid making any assumptions about how contracts from other systems will behave. In many DeFi applications this is not possible, as services are built on top of existing contracts.

These questions should help expose risks related to external dependencies.

3. Responsible disclosure and bounty programs

For talented hackers, there are strong financial incentives to attack DeFi protocols. Having a bounty program in place creates a financial incentive to report vulnerabilities rather than exploit them. Reporting a vulnerability through a bounty program is also good for a hacker’s reputation, and the added benefit of not being illegal.

Any company running a DeFi protocol, with people’s money on the line, should have a bounty program. Here are some good questions you can ask about their program and disclosure process:

Ideally this information would all be found at “” and make use of GitHub’s feature.

4. Incident response planning

It’s difficult for developers to think clearly during a security incident, while new information keeps coming in, and users are asking tough questions on Twitter, Telegram, Discord etc…

Having a plan is evidence of a healthy orientation towards security. It may not make sense for a team to make their full plan public, but they should be able to answer some basic questions about it:

5. Audits and secure development

Auditing is not a silver bullet, and not all audits are equal, but it is a crucial step for any DeFi contracts before deployment.

There isn’t necessarily a ‘right answer’ for each of these questions, but the answers should enable knowledgeable community members to get a feel for the developer teams’ security stance.

For DeFi users interested in keeping up with these matters, another project to watch is ConsenSys’ DeFi Score, which is taking on the difficult task of evaluating the quality of audits and other security processes on various major DeFi projects.

Thank you to Emilio and Ernesto (@eboado on Telegram) (both Aave developers), and Jack from DeFi Score for providing feedback on earlier drafts of this post.

Thinking about smart contract security? We can provide training, ongoing advice, and smart contract auditing. Contact us.

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